The Role of Supply Chain Integration and Agile Practices In Improving Lead Time


  • Muzammil Raza Department of Business Administration, Iqra University, Pakistan


Lead time, Supply chain integration, Integration, Agile practices, COVID-19


Lead time is one of the main factors which always significantly affects supply chain competitiveness. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has harmed the lead time, and an exceptional increase in the lead time has been experienced because of it. However, there are a few variables which can have a positive effect on the lead time. Aim: This research study was aimed at how the variables like Agile Practices and Supply Chain Integration may influence lead time. Methods: Research data was collected from the respondents, who were supply chain executives and managers, through a closed-ended questionnaire, and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed to drive the results. Results: The findings of this study indicates that Supply Chain Integration and Agile Practices contribute to the reduction of lead time. Conclusion: Findings also suggest that the lead time can be significantly reduced with the employment of Supply Chain Integration and Agile Practices.


Alzoubi, H. M., Elrehail, H., Hanaysha, J. R., Al-Gasaymeh, A., & Al-Adaileh, R. (2022). The role of supply chain integration and agile practices in improving lead time during the COVID-19 crisis. International Journal of Service Science Management Engineering and Technology, 13(1), 1–11.

Baloch, N. & Rashid, A. (2022). Supply Chain Networks, Complexity, and Optimization in Developing Economies: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(1), 1-13.

Christopher, M. (2000). The agile supply chain: Competing in volatile markets. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(1), 37–44.

Das, S., Ghani, M., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Manthar, S., & Ahmed, S. (2021). How customer satisfaction and loyalty can be affected by employee’s perceived emotional competence: The mediating role of rapport. International Journal of Management, 12(3), 1268-1277.

Dove, R. (2006). Agile enterprise cornerstones: Knowledge, values, and response ability. In IFIP International Federation for Information Processing (pp. 313–330). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Fattahi, M., Govindan, K., & Keyvanshokooh, E. (2017). Responsive and resilient supply chain network design under operational and disruption risks with delivery lead-time sensitive customers. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 101, 176–200.

Gligor, D. M., Esmark, C. L., & Holcomb, M. C. (2015). Performance outcomes of supply chain agility: When should you be agile? Journal of Operations Management, 33–34(1), 71–82.

Haque, I., Rashid, A., & Ahmed, S. Z. (2021). The Role of Automobile Sector in Global Business: Case of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of International Affairs, 4(2), 363-383.

Hashmi, A. (2022). Factors affecting the supply chain resilience and supply chain performance. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(2), 65-85.

Hashmi, A. R., & Mohd, A. T. (2020). The effect of disruptive factors on inventory control as a mediator and organizational performance in health department of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 9(2), 122-134.

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., & Yusof, Y. (2020a). Mediating effect of integrated systems on the relationship between supply chain management practices and public healthcare performance: Structural Equation Modeling. International Journal of Management and Sustainability, 9(3), 148-160.

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., & Yusof, Y. (2021b). Organizational performance with disruptive factors and inventory control as a mediator in public healthcare of Punjab, Pakistan. Management Science Letters, 11(1), 77-86.

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., & Zaliha, T. N. (2020b). Exploring the dimensions using exploratory factor analysis of disruptive factors and inventory control. The Economics and Finance Letters, 7(2), 247-254.

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., & Zaliha, T. N. (2021a). Mediation of inventory control practices in proficiency and organizational performance: State-funded hospital perspective. Uncertain Supply Chain Management, 9(1), 89-98.

Hashmi, R. (2023). Business Performance Through Government Policies, Green Purchasing, and Reverse Logistics: Business Performance and Green Supply Chain Practices. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 2(1), 1–10.

Hobbs, J. E. (2020). Food supply chains during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 68(2), 171–176.

Khan, S. K., Rashid. A., Benhamed, A., Rasheed, R., & Huma, Z. (2023b). Effect of leadership styles on employee performance by considering psychological capital as mediator: evidence from airlines industry in emerging economy. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 18(6), 799-818.

Khan, S., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., & Amirah, N. A. (2023a). Designing a knowledge-based system (KBS) to study consumer purchase intention: the impact of digital influencers in Pakistan. Kybernetes, 52(5), 1720-1744.

Konstantaras, I., Skouri, K., & Lagodimos, A. G. (2019). EOQ with independent endogenous supply disruptions. Omega, 83, 96–106.

Lucchese, M., & Pianta, M. (2020). The coming Coronavirus crisis: What can we learn? Inter Economics, 55(2), 98–104.

Malakouti, M., Rezaei, S., & Shahijan, M. K. (2017). Agile supply chain management (ASCM): a management decision-making approach. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 29(1), 171–182.

Paul, S. K., Sarker, R., & Essam, D. (2018). A reactive mitigation approach for managing supply disruption in a three-tier supply chain. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 29(7), 1581–1597.

Pilbeam, C., Alvarez, G., & Wilson, H. (2012). The governance of supply networks: a systematic literature review. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 17(4), 358–376.

Rasheed, R., & Rashid, R. (2023). Role of service quality factors in word of mouth through student satisfaction. Kybernetes. In press.

Rasheed, R., Rashid, A., Amirah, N. A., & Afthanorhan, A. (2023). Quantifying the moderating effect of servant leadership between occupational stress and employee in-role and extra-role performance. Calitatea, 24(195), 60-68.

Rashid, A. & Rasheed, R. (2022). A Paradigm for Measuring Sustainable Performance Through Big Data Analytics–Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing Firms. Available at SSRN 4087758.

Rashid, A. & Rasheed, R. (2023). Mediation of inventory management in the relationship between knowledge and firm performance, SAGE Open, 13(2), 1-11.

Rashid, A. (2016). Impact of inventory management in downstream chains on customer satisfaction at manufacturing firms. International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering, 6(6), 1-19.

Rashid, A. Rasheed, R., & Amirah, N. A. (2023). Information technology and people involvement in organizational performance through supply chain collaboration. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management. In press. DOI: 10.1108/JSTPM-12-2022-0217

Rashid, A., Ali, S. B., Rasheed, R., Amirah, N. A. & Ngah, A. H. (2022a). A paradigm of blockchain and supply chain performance: a mediated model using structural equation modeling. Kybernetes, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.

Rashid, A., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., & Mohd, A. T. (2020). Analysis of demographic factors on perceptions of inventory managers towards healthcare performance. The Economics and Finance Letters, 7(2), 289-294.

Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., & Amirah, N. A., & Afthanorhan, A. (2022b). Disruptive factors and customer satisfaction at chain stores in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Distribution Science, 20(10), 93-103.

Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., Khan, S., & Agha, A., A. (2021). A Quantitative Perspective of Systematic Research: Easy and Step-by-Step Initial Guidelines. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 12(9), 2874-2883.

Remko, van H. (2020). Research opportunities for a more resilient post-COVID-19 supply chain – closing the gap between research findings and industry practice. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 40(4), 341–355.

Seuring, S., & Gold, S. (2012). Conducting content-analysis based literature reviews in supply chain management. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 17(5), 544–555.

Shahed, K. S., Azeem, A., Ali, S. M., & Moktadir, M. A. (2021). Shahed, K. S., Azeem, A., Ali, S. M., & Moktadir, M. A. (2021). A supply chain disruption risk mitigation model to manage COVID-19 pandemic risk. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-16.

Singh, S., Kumar, R., Panchal, R., & Tiwari, M. K. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on logistics systems and disruptions in food supply chain. International Journal of Production Research, 59(7), 1993–2008.

Ubaid‐ur‐Rehman, H., Asghar, W., & Khalid, N. (2021). Food security challenges for Pakistan during COVID‐19 pandemic: An overview of the response plan. World Food Policy, 7(1), 82–89.



How to Cite

Raza, M. (2023). The Role of Supply Chain Integration and Agile Practices In Improving Lead Time. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 2(2), 64–77.