The role of supply chain practices on sustainability performance in the pharmaceutical sector: a case from developing economy


  • Hira Habib Iqra University, Pakistan


Green manufacturing, Green purchasing, Green distribution, Sustainable performance, Pharmaceutical, Pakistan


The aim of this research is to broadly identify the sustainable influence of green practices to cope with the problems caused by pharmaceutical manufacturing, purchasing and distribution, which have insignificant effects on the environment, well-being, animals, ocean, and water; in this regard, the significance of the supply chain practices on sustainable performance examined. In this quantitative study, the researcher will use a cross-sectional research design and a structured questionnaire for data collection to find out the research problem from professionals of supply chain managers. In this study, a random sampling technique will be considered to get the actual data from the experience of supply chain managers. The research scope is limited to the Karachi region to discover Supply Chain Practices on Sustainability performance in the Pharmaceutical Sector in Karachi. Thereby potentially restricting generalizability. The findings are based on a sample of 105 pharmaceutical companies in Karachi.


Afum, E., Agyabeng-Mensah, Y., Sun, Z., Frimpong, B., Kusi, L. Y., & Acquah, I. S. K. (2020). Exploring the link between green manufacturing, operational competitiveness, firm reputation and sustainable performance dimensions: a mediated approach. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 31(7), 1417–1438.

Agha, A. A., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Khan, S., & Khan, U. (2021). Antecedents of Customer Loyalty at Telecomm Sector. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 12(9), 1352–1374.

Albhirat, M. M., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Rasool, S., Zulkiffli, S. N. A., Zia-Ul-Haq, H. M., & Mohammad, A. M. (2024). The PRISMA Statement in Enviropreneurship Study: A Systematic Literature and a Research Agenda. Cleaner Engineering and Technology, 18(2024), 100721.

Alrazehi, H. A. A. W., Amirah, N. A., Emam, A. S., & Hashmi, A. R. (2021). Proposed model for entrepreneurship, organizational culture and job satisfaction towards organizational performance in International Bank of Yemen. International Journal of Management and Human Science, 5(1), 1-9.

Amirah, N. A., Him, N. K, Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Zaliha, T. N., & Afthahnoon, A. (2024). Fostering a Safety Culture in Manufacturing through Safety Behavior: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach. Journal of Safety and Sustainability, In press.

Azevedo, S. G., Carvalho, H., & Cruz Machado, V. (2011). The influence of green practices on supply chain performance: A case study approach. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 47(6), 850–871.

Baloch, N. & Rashid, A. (2022). Supply chain networks, complexity, and optimization in developing economies: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(1), 1–13.

Boote, D. N., & Beile, P. (2005). Scholars before researchers: On the centrality of the dissertation literature review in research preparation. Educational Researcher (Washington, D.C.: 1972), 34(6), 3–15.

Bortolini, M., Faccio, M., Gamberi, M., & Pilati, F. (2016). Multi-objective design of multi-modal fresh food distribution networks. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 24(2), 155.

Çankaya, Y. S., & Sezen, B. (2019). Effects of green supply chain management practices on sustainability performance. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 30(1), 98–121.

Carter, C. R., & Rogers, D. S. (2008). A framework of sustainable supply chain management: moving toward new theory. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 38(5), 360–387.

Chin, T., & Sulaiman. (2015). Green Supply Chain Management, Environmental Collaboration and. In Procedia CIRP (pp. 695–699).

Das, S., Ghani, M., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Manthar, S., & Ahmed, S. (2021). How customer satisfaction and loyalty can be affected by employee’s perceived emotional competence: The mediating role of rapport. International Journal of Management, 12(3), 1268–1277.

Deif, A. M. (2011). A system model for green manufacturing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(14), 1553–1559.

Haq, Z. U., Rasheed, R., Rashid, A., & Akhter, S. (2023). Criteria for Assessing and Ensuring the Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research. International Journal of Business Reflections, 4(2), 150–173. Available at:

Haque, I., Rashid, A., & Ahmed, S. Z. (2021). The Role of Automobile Sector in Global Business: Case of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of International Affairs, 4(2), 363-383.

Hashmi, A. (2022). Factors affecting the supply chain resilience and supply chain performance. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(2), 65–85.

Hashmi, A. R., & Mohd, A. T. (2020). The effect of disruptive factors on inventory control as a mediator and organizational performance in health department of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 9(2), 122-134.

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., & Yusof, Y. (2020a). Mediating effect of integrated systems on the relationship between supply chain management practices and public healthcare performance: Structural Equation Modeling. International Journal of Management and Sustainability, 9(3), 148-160.

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., & Yusof, Y. (2021b). Organizational performance with disruptive factors and inventory control as a mediator in public healthcare of Punjab, Pakistan. Management Science Letters, 11(1), 77-86.

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., & Zaliha, T. N. (2020b). Exploring the dimensions using exploratory factor analysis of disruptive factors and inventory control. The Economics and Finance Letters, 7(2), 247-254.

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., & Zaliha, T. N. (2021a). Mediation of inventory control practices in proficiency and organizational performance: State-funded hospital perspective. Uncertain Supply Chain Management, 9(1), 89-98.

Hashmi, R. (2023). Business Performance Through Government Policies, Green Purchasing, and Reverse Logistics: Business Performance and Green Supply Chain Practices. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 2(1), 1–10.

Hutomo, A., Haizam, M., & Sinaga, O. (2018). The mediating role of organizational learning capability on green distribution and green packaging towards sustainability performance as A function environmental dynamism: Indonesia and Malaysia fishery industries. IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science, 164, 012018.

Kafa, N., Hani, Y., & El Mhamedi, A. (2013). Sustainability performance measurement for green supply chain management. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 46(24), 71–78.

Kessel, M. (2014). Restoring the pharmaceutical industry’s reputation. Nature Biotechnology, 32(10), 983–990.

Khan, S. K., Ahmed, S., & Rashid, A. (2021). Influence of social media on purchase intention and customer loyalty of generation Y with the mediating effect of conviction: a case of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of International Affairs, 4(2), 526–548.

Khan, S. K., Rashid. A., Benhamed, A., Rasheed, R., & Huma, Z. (2023b). Effect of leadership styles on employee performance by considering psychological capital as mediator: evidence from airlines industry in emerging economy. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 18(6), 799-818.

Khan, S., Rasheed., R., Rashid, A., Abbas, Q., & Mahboob, F. (2022). The Effect of Demographic Characteristics on Job Performance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 9(2), 283-294.

Khan, S., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., & Amirah, N. A. (2023a). Designing a knowledge-based system (KBS) to study consumer purchase intention: the impact of digital influencers in Pakistan. Kybernetes, 52(5), 1720-1744.

Klassen, R. D., & McLaughlin, C. P. (1996). The impact of environmental management on firm performance. Management Science, 42(8), 1199–1214.

Kumar, G., & Goswami, M. (2019). Sustainable supply chain performance, its practice and impact on barriers to collaboration. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 68(8), 1434–1456.

Lin, P. C., & Huang, Y. H. (2012). The influence factors on choice behavior regarding green products based on the theory of consumption values. Journal of Cleaner Production, 22(1), 11-18.

Markley, M. J., & Davis, L. (2007). Exploring future competitive advantage through sustainable supply chains. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 37(9), 763–774.

Masoumik, S. M., Abdul-Rashid, S. H., Olugu, E. U., & Ghazilla, R. A. R. (2015). A strategic approach to develop green supply chains. Procedia CIRP, 26, 670–676.

Matlin, S. A., Mehta, G., Hopf, H., & Krief, A. (2016). One-world chemistry and systems thinking. Nature Chemistry, 8(5), 393–398.

Min, H., & Galle, W. P. (1997). Green purchasing strategies: Trends and implications. International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, 33(2), 10–17.

Nash, J. P., Kime, D. E., Van der Ven, L. T. M., Wester, P. W., Brion, F., Maack, G., Stahlschmidt-Allner, P., & Tyler, C. R. (2004). Long-term exposure to environmental concentrations of the pharmaceutical ethynylestradiol causes reproductive failure in fish. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(17), 1725–1733.

Pagell. (2009). Building a more complete theory of sustainable supply chain management using case studies of ten exemplars. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 37–56.

Pal, U. (2002). Identifying the path to successful green manufacturing. JOM (Warrendale, Pa.: 1989), 54(5), 25–25.

Paulraj, A. (2011). Understanding the relationships between internal resources and capabilities, sustainable supply management and organizational sustainability. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 47(1), 19–37.

Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78-92.

Porter, M. E., & Linde, C. V. D. (1995). Toward a new conception of the environment-competitiveness relationship. The Journal of Economic Perspectives: A Journal of the American Economic Association, 9(4), 97–118.

Pujari, D. (2006). Eco-innovation and new product development: understanding the influences on market performance. Technovation, 26(1), 76–85.

Randolph, J. (2009). A guide to writing the dissertation literature review. In Practical assessment, research & evaluation (Vol. 14, Issue 1, p. 13). University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Rao, P., & Holt, D. (2005). Do green supply chains lead to competitiveness and economic performance? International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 25(9), 898–916.

Rasheed, R., & Rashid, R. (2023). Role of service quality factors in word of mouth through student satisfaction. Kybernetes, In press.

Rasheed, R., Rashid, A., Amirah, N. A., & Afthanorhan, A. (2023). Quantifying the moderating effect of servant leadership between occupational stress and employee in-role and extra-role performance. Calitatea, 24(195), 60-68.

Rashid, A. & Rasheed, R. (2022). A Paradigm for Measuring Sustainable Performance Through Big Data Analytics–Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing Firms. Available at SSRN 4087758.

Rashid, A. (2016). Impact of inventory management in downstream chains on customer satisfaction at manufacturing firms. International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering, 6(6), 1–19.

Rashid, A., & Amirah, N. A. (2017). Relationship between poor documentation and efficient inventory control at Provincial Ministry of Health, Lahore. American Journal of Innovative Research and Applied Sciences, 5(6), 420–423.

Rashid, A., & Rasheed, R. (2023). Mediation of Inventory Management in the Relationship between Knowledge and Firm Performance. SAGE Open, 13(2), 1–11.

Rashid, A., & Rasheed, R. (2024). Logistics Service Quality and Product Satisfaction in E-Commerce. SAGE Open, 14(1), 1–12.

Rashid, A., Ali, S. B., Rasheed, R., Amirah, N. A. & Ngah, A. H. (2022a). A paradigm of blockchain and supply chain performance: a mediated model using structural equation modeling. Kybernetes, 52(12), 6163-6178.

Rashid, A., Amirah, N. A., & Yusof, Y. (2019). Statistical approach in exploring factors of documentation process and hospital performance: a preliminary study. American Journal of Innovative Research and Applied Sciences, 9(4), 306-310.

Rashid, A., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., & Mohd, A. T. (2020). Analysis of demographic factors on perceptions of inventory managers towards healthcare performance. The Economics and Finance Letters, 7(2), 289-294.

Rashid, A., Baloch, N., Rasheed, R., & Ngah, A. H. (2024b). Big Data Analytics-Artificial Intelligence and Sustainable Performance through Green Supply Chain Practices in Manufacturing Firms of a Developing Country. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, In press,

Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., & Amirah, N. A. (2023). Information technology and people involvement in organizational performance through supply chain collaboration. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, In press.

Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., & Amirah, N. A., & Afthanorhan, A. (2022b). Disruptive factors and customer satisfaction at chain stores in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Distribution Science, 20(10), 93-103.

Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., & Ngah, A. H. (2024a). Achieving Sustainability through Multifaceted Green Functions in Manufacturing. Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, In press.

Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., Khan, S., & Agha, A., A. (2021). A Quantitative Perspective of Systematic Research: Easy and Step-by-Step Initial Guidelines. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 12(9), 2874–2883.

Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Ngah, A. H., Pradeepa Jayaratne, M. D. R., Rahi, S. & Tunio, M. N. (2024c). Role of Information Processing and Digital Supply Chain in Supply Chain Resilience through Supply Chain Risk Management. Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, In press.

Rehman, M. A., Seth, D., & Shrivastava, R. L. (2016). Impact of green manufacturing practices on organizational performance in Indian context: An empirical study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 137, 427–448.

Roschangar, F., Colberg, J., Dunn, P. J., Gallou, F., Hayler, J. D., Koenig, S. G., Kopach, M. E., Leahy, D. K., Mergelsberg, I., Tucker, J. L., Sheldon, R. A., & Senanayake, C. H. (2017). A deeper shade of green: inspiring sustainable drug manufacturing. Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC, 19(1), 281–285.

Russo, M. V., & Fouts, P. A. (1997). A resource-based perspective on corporate environmental performance and profitability. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 534–559.

Salam, M. A. (2009). RETRACTED ARTICLE: Corporate social responsibility in purchasing and supply chain. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(S2), 355–370.

Sarkis, J. (2003). A strategic decision framework for green supply chain management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 11(4), 397–409.

Sezen, B., Karakadilar, I. S., & Buyukozkan, G. (2012). Proposition of a model for measuring adherence to lean practices: applied to Turkish automotive part suppliers. International Journal of Production Research, 50(14), 3878–3894.

Sharma, S., & Vredenburg, H. (1998). Proactive corporate environmental strategy and the development of competitively valuable organizational capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 19(8), 729–753.<729::aid-smj967>;2-4

Swan, G., Naidoo, V., Cuthbert, R., Green, R. E., Pain, D. J., Swarup, D., Prakash, V., Taggart, M., Bekker, L., Das, D., Diekmann, J., Diekmann, M., Killian, E., Meharg, A., Patra, R. C., Saini, M., & Wolter, K. (2006). Removing the threat of diclofenac to critically endangered Asian vultures. PLoS Biology, 4(3), e66.

Walker, H., Di Sisto, L., & McBain, D. (2008). Drivers and barriers to environmental supply chain management practices: Lessons from the public and private sectors. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 14(1), 69–85.

Ward. (2014). Green chemistry: Pharmaceutical companies try to clean up their act. Financial Times.

Zhu, Q., Sarkis, J., & Lai, K. H. (2008). Confirmation of a measurement model for green supply chain management practices implementation. International Journal of Production Economics, 111(2), 261-273.

Zhu, Q., Sarkis, J., & Lai, K.-H. (2007). Green supply chain management: pressures, practices and performance within the Chinese automobile industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(11–12), 1041–1052.



How to Cite

Habib, H. (2024). The role of supply chain practices on sustainability performance in the pharmaceutical sector: a case from developing economy. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 3(2), 265–281.