Lean Manufacturing and Sustainable Performance with a Moderation of Organizational Culture

Lean Manufacturing and Sustainability




Lean manufacturing, SME, Karachi, Performance, Sustainability, PLS-SEM


This study explores the contribution of lean practices in a manufacturing firm in Karachi towards sustainable performance while considering organizational culture as a moderator. Lean approaches benefit firms' social, environmental, and financial aspects, influencing their endurable performance. Manufacturing firms nowadays globally are focused on lean implementation. A structured questionnaire was distributed among employees of the Small and Medium Enterprises in Karachi that fit in the category and belonged to the manufacturing enterprises. A sample of 200 respondents was analyzed using the partial least squares technique (PLS-SEM). The results indicate that Human resource practices, Supplier relationships, and organizational culture significantly affect sustainable performance; furthermore, organizational culture moderated the supplier relationships' impact on sustainable performance. Thesis outcomes contribute to the analysis of the study, broadening the writings on lean manufacturing and sustainable performance with a Moderation of Organizational Culture. The finding of the thesis possibly will be used as a motivation for firms in Karachi to implement Lean approaches as companies that adopt Lean practices globally have the result of improving firms' endurable performance through lean manufacturing approaches.


Abdullah, M., Zailani, S., Iranmanesh, M., & Jayaraman, K. (2016). Barriers to green innovation initiatives among manufacturers. The Malaysian Case. Rev. Manag. Sci., 10, 683-709. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-015-0173-9

Abu, F., Gholami, H., Saman, M. Z. M., Zakuan, N., Streimikiene, D., & Kyriakopoulos, G. L. (2021). An SEM approach for the barrier analysis in lean implementation in manufacturing industries. Sustainability, 13(4), 1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041978

Achanga, P., Shehab, E., Roy, R., & Nelder, G. (2006). Critical success factors for Lean implementation within SMEs. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 17(4), 360-471. https://doi.org/10.1108/17410380610662889

AĞAN, Y., Kuzey, C., Acar, M. F., & Açikgöz, A. (2016). The relationships between corporate social responsibility, environmental supplier development, and firm performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 1872-1881. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.090

Agha, A. A., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Khan, S., & Khan, U. (2021). Antecedents of Customer Loyalty at Telecomm Sector. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 12(9), 1352-1374.

Alam, M. (2022). Supply Chain Management Practices and Organizational Performance in Manufacturing Industry. South Asian Journal of Social Review, 1(1), 42-52. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJSR.2022.1.1.2204

Ali, S. B. (2022). Industrial Revolution 4.0 and Supply Chain Digitization. South Asian Journal of Social Review, 1(1), 21-41. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJSR.2022.1.1.2205

Alkhoraif, A., Rashid, H., & McLaughlin, P. (2019). Lean implementation in small and medium enterprises: A literature review. Operations Research Perspectives, 6, 100089. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orp.2018.100089

Alrazehi, H. A. A. W., Amirah, N. A., Emam, A. S., & Hashmi, A. R. (2021). Proposed model for entrepreneurship, organizational culture and job satisfaction towards organizational performance in International Bank of Yemen. International Journal of Management and Human Science, 5(1), 1-9.

Amjad, S. (2022). Role of Logistical Practices in Quality Service Delivery at Supermarkets: A Case Study from Pakistan. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(1), 39-56. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJOL.2022.1.1.2204

Antonides, G., & Van Raaij, W. F. (1999). Consumer Behaviour:: A European Perspective. European Journal of Marketing, 33(5-6), 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1108/ejm.1999.33.5_6.1.1

Anwar, M. F. A. (2022). The Influence of Inter-Organizational System Use and Supply Chain Capabilities on Supply Chain Performance. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(1), 20-38. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJOL.2022.1.1.2203

Ashby, A., Leat, M., & Hudson-Smith, M. (2012), Making connections: A review of supply chain management and sustainability literature. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 17(5), 497-516. https://doi.org/10.1108/13598541211258573

Asif, K. (2022). The Impact of Procurement Strategies on Supply Chain Sustainability in the Pharmaceutical Industry. South Asian Journal of Social Review, 1(1), 53-64. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJSR.2022.1.1.2203

Ayaz, J. (2022). Relationship between Green Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Quality Integration, and Environmental Performance. South Asian Management Review, 1(1), 22-38. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAMR.2022.1.1.2203

Babbie, E. (2010). The practice of social research: Cengage Learning. Coughlan, AT, Anderson, E., Stern, LW, & Adel, I. El-Ansary (2001), Marketing Channels. De Búrca, S., Fletcher, R., & Brown, L. (2004). International marketing: an SME perspective. Pearson Education. Ellis, (2011), 73-85.

Baloch, N. & Rashid, A. (2022). Supply Chain Networks, Complexity, and Optimization in Developing Economies: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJOL.2022.1.1.2202

Barclay, R. C., Cudney, E. A., Shetty, S., & Antony, J. (2022). Determining critical success factors for lean implementation. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 33(7-8), 818-832. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2021.1894919

Basit, A. (2022). The Influence of Green Supply Chain Management on Sustainable Performance. South Asian Management Review, 1(1), 49-66. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAMR.2022.1.1.2206

Belliveau, P., Griffin, A., & Somermeyer, S. (Eds.). (2004). The PDMA tool book 1 for new product development. John Wiley & Sons.

Bhuiyan, N., & Baghel, A. (2005). An overview of continuous improvement: from the past to the present. Management Decision, 43(5), 761-771. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251740510597761

Bloch, P.H. (1995). Seeking the Ideal Form: Product Design and Consumer Response. Journal of Marketing, 59, 16-29. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299505900302

Boström, M., Jönsson, A.M., Lockie, S., Mol, A.P., & Oosterveer, P. (2015). Sustainable and responsible supply chain governance: challenges and opportunities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 107, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.11.050

Boxall, P., & Purcell, J. (2022). Strategy and human resource management (pp.71-88). Bloomsbury Publishing.

Bruce, M., & Bessant, J. (2002). Managing Design as a Process. Design in Business: Strategic Innovation through Design (pp. 36-58). Prentice-Hall.

Camioto, F.C., Mariano, E.B., & Rebelatto, D.A.N. (2014). Efficiency in Brazil's industrial sectors in terms of energy and sustainable development. Environ. Science Policy, 37, 50-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2013.08.007

Carter, C. R., & Rogers, D. S., (2008), A framework of sustainable supply chain management: Moving toward new theory. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 38(5), 360-387. https://doi.org/10.1108/09600030810882816

Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L., & Newsted, P. R. (2003). A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study. Information Systems Research, 14(2), 189-217. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.

Comm, C. L., & Mathaisel, D. F. (2000). A paradigm for benchmarking lean initiatives for quality improvement. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 7(2), 118-128. https://doi.org/10.1108/14635770010298584

Coyle-Shapiro, J.A.M. (2002). A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 23, 927-946. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.173

Daniels, S. (2003). Employee training: a strategic approach to a better return on investment. Journal of Business Strategy, 24(5), 39-42. https://doi.org/10.1108/02756660310698713

Das, S., Ghani, M., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Manthar, S., & Ahmed, S. (2021). How customer satisfaction and loyalty can be affected by employee's perceived emotional competence: The mediating role of rapport. International Journal of Management, 12(3), 1268-1277. doi: 10.34218/IJM.12.3.2021.119.

De Toni, A., & Tonchia, S. (1996), Lean organization, management by process and performance measurement, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 16(2), 221-236. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443579610109947

Dorval, M., Jobin, M. H., & Benomar, N. (2019). Lean culture: a comprehensive systematic literature review. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-03-2018-0087

Esfahbodi, A., ZHANG, Y., & WATSON, G. (2016). Sustainable supply chain management in emerging economies: Trade-offs between environmental and cost performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 181, 350-366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2016.02.013

Eswaramoorthi, M., Kathiresan, G. R., Prasad, P. S., & Mohanram, P. V. (2011). A survey on lean practices in Indian machine tools industries. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 52(9-12), 1091-1101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-010-2788-y

Fiksel, J., Mcdaniel, J., & Mendenhall, C. (1991). Measuring Progress towards Sustainability Principles, Process, and Best Practices. Battelle Memorial Institute: Columbus, OH, USA.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104

Gemser, G., & Leenders, M.A.A.M. (2001). How Integrating Industrial Design in the Product Development Process Impacts Company Performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 18, 28-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-5885.1810028

Ghosh, M. (2012). Lean manufacturing performance in Indian manufacturing plants. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 24(1), 113-122. https://doi.org/10.1108/17410381311287517

Ghozali, I. (2014). Structural Equation Modeling, Metode Alternatif dengan. Partial Least Square (PLS). Edisi, 4.

Goldratt, E. M. (1990). Theory of constraints (pp. 1-159). Croton-on-Hudson: North River.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Thiele, K. O. (2017). Mirror, mirror on the wall: a comparative evaluation of composite-based structural equation modeling methods. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(5), 616-632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-017-0517-x

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2018-0203

Hair, J.F.J., Money, A., Samouel, P., & Page, M. (2007). Research Methods for Business. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, England. ISBN-13:978-0-470-03404-0.

Hajmohammad, S., Vachon, S., Klassen, R. D., & Gavronski, I. (2013). Lean management and supply management: their role in green practices and performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 39, 312-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.07.028

Hallgren, M., & Olhager, J. (2009). Lean and agile manufacturing: external and internal drivers and performance outcomes. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 29(10), 976-999. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443570910993456

Haque, I., Rashid, A., & Ahmed, S. Z. (2021). The Role of Automobile Sector in Global Business: Case of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of International Affairs. 4(2), 363-383. https://doi.org/10.52337/pjia.v4i2.195

Hashmi, A. R., & Mohd, A. T. (2020). The effect of disruptive factors on inventory control as a mediator and organizational performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy, 9(2), 122-134. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.26.2020.92.122.134

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., & Yusof, Y. (2020a). Mediating effect of integrated systems on the relationship between supply chain management practices and public healthcare performance: Structural Equation Modeling. International Journal of Management and Sustainability, 9(3), 148-160. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.11.2020.93.148.160

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., & Yusof, Y. (2021a). Organizational performance with disruptive factors and inventory control as a mediator in public healthcare of Punjab, Pakistan. Management Science Letters, 11(1), 77-86. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.8.028

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., & Zaliha, T. N. (2020b). Exploring the dimensions using exploratory factor analysis of disruptive factors and inventory control. The Economics and Finance Letters, 7(2), 247-254. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.29.2020.72.247.254

Hashmi, A. R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., & Zaliha, T. N. (2021b). Mediation of inventory control practices in proficiency and organizational performance: State-funded hospital perspective. Uncertain Supply Chain Management. 9(1), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.uscm.2020.11.006

He, H., & Li, Y. (2011). CSR and service brand: the mediating effect of brand identification and moderating effect of service quality. Journal of Business Ethics, 100(4), 673-688. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0703-y

Hertenstein, J. H., Blatt, M. B., & Veryzer, R. W. (2005). The Impact of Industrial Design Effectiveness on Corporate Financial Performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 22, 3-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0737-6782.2005.00100.x

Herzog, & Tonchia, (2014), An Instrument for Measuring the Degree of Lean Implementation in Manufacturing, Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 60(12), 797-803. https://doi.org/10.5545/sv-jme.2014.1873

Hunaid, M., Bhurgri, A. A., & Shaikh, A. (2022). Supply Chain Visibility in Leading Organizations of the Shipping Industry. South Asian Journal of Social Review, 1(1), 8-20. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJSR.2022.1.1.2202

Kafuku, J. M. (2019). Factors for effective implementation of lean manufacturing practice in selected industries in Tanzania. Procedia Manufacturing, 33, 351-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2019.04.043

Karim, A., & Arif-Uz-Zaman, K. (2013), A methodology for effective implementation of lean strategies and its performance evaluation in manufacturing organizations. Business Process Management Journal, 19(1), 169-196. https://doi.org/10.1108/14637151311294912

Karlsson, C., & Åhlström, P. (1996). Assessing changes towards lean production. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 24-41. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443579610109820

Khan, S. K., Ahmed, S., & Rashid, A. (2021). Influence of social media on purchase intention and customer loyalty of generation Y with the mediating effect of conviction: a case of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of International Affairs. 4(2), 526-548. https://doi.org/10.52337/pjia.v4i2.207

Khan, S., Benham, A., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., & Huma, Z. (2022c). Effect of leadership styles on employees' performance by considering psychological capital as mediator: evidence from airlines industry in emerging economy. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 18(8). https://wasdlibrary.org/publications/journals/wjemsd/

Khan, S., Rasheed., R., & Rashid, A., Abbas, Q., & Mahboob, F. (2022b). The Effect of Demographic Characteristics on Job Performance: An Empirical Study from Pakistan. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 9(2), 283-294. https://doi.org/10.13106/jafeb.2022.vol9.no2.0283

Khan, S., Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., & Amirah, N. A. (2022a). Designing a knowledge-based system (KBS) to study consumer purchase intention: the impact of digital influencers in Pakistan. Kybernetes, 51(1). https://doi.org/10.1108/K-06-2021-0497

Khanchanapong, T., Prajogo, D., Sohal, A. S., Cooper, B. K., Yeung, A. C., & Cheng, T. C. E. (2014). The unique and complementary effects of manufacturing technologies and lean practices on manufacturing operational performance, International Journal of Production Economics, 153, 191-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.02.021

Kotler, P., & Keller, K. (2003). Marketing Management, (international version). Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Kotter, J. R. (1995). Leading change why transformation efforts fail. Harvard business review, 73(2), 59-67.

Lee, N., & Lings, I. (2008). Doing business research: a guide to theory and practice. Sage.

Maylor, H., & Blackmon, K. (2005). Chapter 5: Scientist or Ethnographer: Two models for designing and doing research. Researching Business and Management, 134-164. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-11022-0_5

Melnyk, S. A., Sroufe, R. P., Montabon, F. L., & Hinds, J. (2001). Green MRP: Identifying the material and environmental impacts of production schedules. International Journal Production Research, 39(8), 1559-1573. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207540010022980

Muzammil, M. (2022). Evaluating the Factors to Improve the Organizational Performance. South Asian Management Review, 1(1), 39-48. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAMR.2022.1.1.2204

Nagati, H., & Rebolledo, C. (2013). Supplier development efforts: The suppliers' point of view. Industrial marketing management, 42(2), 180-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2012.12.006

Ndaita, P. M., Gachie, T., & Kiveu, C. W. (2015). The implementation of Lean Six Sigma concept at national bank of Kenya-operation division. The TQM Journal, 27(6), 683-690. https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-06-2015-0078

Nguyen, L., & Watanabe, T. (2017), The Impact of Project Organizational Culture on the Performance of Construction Projects. Sustainability, 9(5), 781. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9050781

Nordin, N., Deros, B. M., & Wahab, D. A. (2010). A survey on lean manufacturing implementation in the Malaysian automotive industry. International Journal of Innovation, Management, and Technology, 1(4), 374.

Ohno, T. (1988). Toyota production system. Tokyo, Japan: Diamond.

Panizzolo, R. (1998). Applying the lessons learned from 27 lean manufacturers: The relevance of relationships management. International Journal of Production Economics, 55(3), 223-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5273(98)00066-8

Pavnaskar, S. J., Gershenson, J. K., & Jambekar, A. B. (2003). Classification scheme for lean manufacturing tools. International Journal of Production Research, 41(13), 3075-3090. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020754021000049817

Pfeffer, J. (1995). Producing sustainable competitive advantage through effective people management. Academy of Management Executive, 9(1), 55-72. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1995.9503133495

Prasad, M. M., Dhiyaneswari, J. M., Jamaan, J. R., Mythreyan, S., & Sutharsan, S. M. (2020). A framework for lean manufacturing implementation in Indian textile industry. Materials Today: Proceedings, 33, 2986-2995. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.979

Rasheed, T. (2022). Supply Chain Sustainability Through Green Practices in Manufacturing: A Case Study from Pakistan. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(1), 57-71. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJOL.2022.1.1.2205

Rashid, A. & Rasheed, R. (2022). A Paradigm for Measuring Sustainable Performance Through Big Data Analytics-Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing Firms. SSRN 4087758. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4087758

Rashid, A. (2016). Impact of inventory management in downstream chains on customer satisfaction at manufacturing firms. International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering, 6(6), 1-19.

Rashid, A., & Amirah, N. A. (2017). Relationship between poor documentation and efficient inventory control at Provincial Ministry of Health, Lahore. American Journal of Innovative Research and Applied Sciences, 5(6), 420-423.

Rashid, A., Ali, S. B., Rasheed, R., Amirah, N. A. & Ngah, A. H. (2022). A paradigm of blockchain and supply chain performance: a mediated model using structural equation modeling. Kybernetes, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/K-04-2022-0543

Rashid, A., Amirah, N. A., & Yusof, Y. (2019). Statistical approach in exploring factors of documentation process and hospital performance: a preliminary study. American Journal of Innovative Research and Applied Sciences, 9(4), 306-310.

Rashid, A., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., & Mohd, A. T. (2020). Analysis of demographic factors on perceptions of inventory managers towards healthcare performance. The Economics and Finance Letters, 7(2), 289-294. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.29.2020.72.289.294

Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., Khan, S., & Agha, A. A. (2021). A Quantitative Perspective of Systematic Research: Easy and Step-by-Step Initial Guidelines. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 12(9), 2874-2883.

Rashid, A., Rasheed, R., Amirah, N. A., Yusof, Y., Khan, S., & Agha, A., A. (2021). A Quantitative Perspective of Systematic Research: Easy and Step-by-Step Initial Guidelines. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 12(9), 2874-2883.

Sajjad, A. (2015). Embedding sustainability into supply chain management: a New Zealand perspective: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management at Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand (Doctoral dissertation, Massey University)

Saleh, C., Immawan, T., Hassan, A. B., & Zakka, M. N. (2019). Profit optimization through applying Theory of Constraints (TOC): A case study in printing company. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 530(1),012045. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/530/1/012045

Sanchez, A.M., & Perez, M.P. (2001). Lean indicators and manufacturing strategies. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 21(11), 1433-1451. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443570110407436

Sarstedt, M., & Cheah, J. H. (2019). Partial least squares structural equation modeling using SmartPLS: a software review. Journal of Marketing Analytics, 7, 196–202. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41270-019-00058-3

Schein, E. H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership San Francisco. San Francisco: Jossey-Basss.

Schuler, R., & Jackson, S. (1997). Linking competitive strategies with human resource management practices, Academy of Management Executive, 1(3), 207-219. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1987.4275740

Shah, R., & Ward, P. T. (2003). Lean manufacturing: context, practice bundles, and performance. Journal of Operations Management, 21(2), 129-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963(02)00108-0

Shah, R., & Ward, P. T. (2007). Defining and Developing measures of lean production. Journal of Operations Management, 25(4), 785-805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2007.01.019

Shaheen, S. (2022). Quality management and operational performance: a case study from Pakistan. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(1), 14-19. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJOL.2022.1.1.2201

Silver, E. A., Pyke, D. F., & Peterson, R. (1998). Inventory management and production planning and scheduling (vol. 3, p. 30). New York: Wiley.

Slack, N., Brandon-Jones, A., & Johnston, R. (2016). Operations management. Harlow, England: Pearson.

Snee, R. D. (2010). Lean Six Sigma-getting better all the time. International Journal Lean Six Sigma 1, 9-29. https://doi.org/10.1108/20401461011033130

Staudacher, A. P., & Tantardini, M. (2008). Lean production implementation: a survey in Italy. Dirección y Organización, 35, 52-60. https://doi.org/10.37610/dyo.v0i35.56

Strandhagen, J. O., Vallandingham, L. R., Fragapane, G., Strandhagen, J. W., Stangeland, A. B. H., & Sharma, N. (2017) Logistics 4.0 and emerging sustainable business models. Journal: Advances in Manufacturing, 5, 359-369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40436-017-0198-1

Taherimashhadi, M., & Ribas, I. (2018). A Model to align the organizational culture to Lean. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 11(2), 207-221. https://doi.org/10.3926/jiem.2511

Uddin, S. Q. (2022). Supply Chain Integration, Flexibility, and Operational Performance. South Asian Management Review, 1(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAMR.2022.1.1.2202

Ulrich, K.T., & Pearson, S. (1998). Assessing the Importance of Design through Product Archaeology. Management Science 44(3), 352-69. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.44.3.352

Victory, G. O., Lizzie, O. A. & Olaitan, A. A. (2022). Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices at Oyo State-Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Social Review, 1(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJSR.2022.1.1.2201

Wilson, J. (2014). Essentials of business research: A guide to doing your research project. Essentials of Business Research, 1-376.

Worley, J.M., & Doolen T.L. 2006. The role of communication and management support in a Lean manufacturing implementation. Management Decision, 44(2), 228-245. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251740610650210

Yilmaz, C., & Ergun, E. (2008), Organizational culture and firm effectiveness: An examination of relative effects of culture traits and the balanced culture hypothesis in an emerging economy. Journal of World Business, 43(3), 290-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2008.03.019

Zailani, S., Govindan, K., Iranmanesh, M., Shaharudin, M. R., & Chong, Y. S. (2015). Green innovation adoption in automotive supply chain: The Malaysian case. Journal of Cleaner Production, 108, 1115-1122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.039

Zakari, M., Poku, K., & Owusu-Ansah, W. (2013). Organizational culture and organizational performance: Empirical evidence from the banking industry in Ghana. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 3(1), 95-107.



How to Cite

Wahab, A. (2022). Lean Manufacturing and Sustainable Performance with a Moderation of Organizational Culture: Lean Manufacturing and Sustainability. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(2), 30–52. https://doi.org/10.57044/SAJOL.2022.1.2.2209